Lapszámok 2010
1. szám

Kiss István DLA:
Ókori felhőkarcoló - Az alexandriai világítótorony


After death of Alexander the Great, Ptolemaic Alexxandria became a political, commercial and scientific centre of the Ancient World. The city gained this position of eminence under two Macedonian-Ptolemaic pharaos who were not just talented monarchs but also genuine intellectuals. At first, Soter built a magnificient harbour for the ever growing maritime commerce and then, Philadelphos erected a colossal lighthouse of skyscraper height for the busy traffic of ships, directing them into safety of the harbour in daylight by smoke and in night by a fire always aflame. All the known construction technologies of that historic period were unsuitable to erect such a high structure because all of them lacked corner rigidity. In these hopeless situation Architect and Builder of the Pharos, Sostratos of Knidos borrowed the new idea of Egyptian pyramid building developed in the age of the XIIth dinasty. It was a wall-framed pyramid skeleton of uniformly controled dimensions (a 80 m high structure on a 102x102 m square floor plan). Sostratos used a retaining wall-frame system of a 75mtruncated pyramid on a 33x33msquare floor plan providing diagonal and to the side lines perpendicularly running walls and a hollow core in the middle of it for the stairs On top of that building substructure he built a 30 m high double walled octogone prism. The next portion of the tower was a cilinder at level 120 m, topped by a monopteros type Greek temple as the fire sanctuary crowned by a marble stepped conic roof as statue pedestal of the Sun-god, Helios. Building costs of the Pharos climbed as high as 800 talents, the price of 2100 tons gold.

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